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釬氪ㄩ惄靡 懂埭ㄩ扠痔羲誧﹛梪琭2019-08-12 14:21﹛梓ワㄩ
  • sunbet※啄啄鎔鎔ㄛ斕蠅溫陑勘ㄛ扂遜疑﹝諺語是廣泛流傳民間、言簡意賅的短語,也是中國語言文化的寶貴遺產。而作為戲諺,是戲曲藝人千百年來藝術實踐的總結,反映了戲曲藝術的特點和規律。歷來很少有人專門研究,也很少有專著出版,劉克定的這本《祖言--中國戲曲諺語說要》尤其顯得有特色。■文:黎福清戲劇史家蔣星煜對劉克定先生這部著作,評價甚高,「難為他搜集了這樣一批有關戲曲的諺語,絕非一朝一夕所能辦到的。而且看來經過了一番選擇,並沒有撿到籃子裡就是菜,可謂有量有質。尤其對這些戲諺所作的考證、評說,更是精到、深刻。」「戲曲歷史研究、戲曲諺語研究,是戲曲發展過程中不可或缺的部分,尤其被稱為『祖言』的諺語,在戲曲藝術中起茷D常重要的『潛法則』作用,迄今已經上千年的歷史,卻很少有人從理論上加以研究。所以我讀到劉克定《祖言--中國戲曲諺語說要》的初稿時,是感到很高興的。書中有相當篇幅談到戲曲史,諸如歷史上關於戲曲存廢的論爭、戲曲的發展、戲曲與音樂的關係,論及戲曲諺語這種長期藝術實踐過程中加以濃縮而提煉出來的語言結晶。戲諺是語言學的一種,同時也是戲曲理論的一種,比之峨冠博帶的論文,它具有通俗曉暢、言簡意賅的特點,正如王國維先生所說『述事則如其口出是也』。甚至不同的戲曲,其諺語在語言、內容、格式上又形態各異,頗似得心應手的工具。中國古代文學『率用古語』,即使戲曲評論也不乏詰屈聱牙的文字,而作為戲諺,不僅較多地用了里井俗語,而且兼用了少數民族語言、方言。儘管時代久遠,卻完全是通俗語言版本,這就很有意思--這是一個值得探索研究的課題。」(見《序》)講歷史說藝術談感受我曾在文化部門工作多年,對中國的傳統戲曲藝術多有接觸,因而對劉克定這部新著倍感親切,我覺得這是一部很有特色的著作。《祖言》一書,精選戲諺140條,戲曲論文多篇。劉克定以平樸的語言,對戲曲的歷史、流變、表演、唱腔、服裝、舞台美術等方面進行論述,對戲曲與生活的關係加以闡述,探索諺謠之源,挖掘戲諺之美。作為一位作家,他涉獵甚廣,出版過多部著作,如傳記、雜文、戲劇、電影等,並在美術、書法、音樂方面,有很好的藝術修養。這與他曾在文化界工作多年有一定關係。他很早即對戲諺發生興趣,茪漍i行收集、研究,講歷史、說藝術、談感悟,深入淺出,妙趣橫生,認為戲諺是很有價值的東西,需要傳承發揚。如「三分戲品,七分人品」。就提到從藝應該有好的人品,要有高尚的道德情操,人品比戲品更重要。在這方面許多藝術前輩為我們做出了榜樣。好的人品,可使戲品更優秀。反之,人品不夠好,很難攀登藝術的高峰。藝術是崇高的事業,要攀登藝術的高峰,要付出比常人多十倍的努力。「台上一分鐘,台下十年功」,「三年出個狀元,十年出不了個唱戲的」,這些戲諺,是戲曲演員用汗水、淚水和心血凝煉而成的結晶。他們夏練三伏,冬練三九。曲不離口,拳不離手,耐得住寂寞,忍得住傷痛,其中的酸甜苦辣誰能知曉?「清角聲高非易奏,優曇花好不輕開。須知極樂神仙境,修煉多從苦中來。」現在有些青年演員,一上台就要掌聲,聽到幾句恭維的話就飄飄然了,就懶得練功了,從此刀槍入庫,馬放南山。一些老藝術家誠懇告誡大家:「學到知羞處,方知藝不高」。戲諺需挖掘搶救戲諺對戲曲藝術的規律特點,也有很好的總結。如「不像不是戲,太像不是藝」。戲曲不是生活的照搬,而是高度的概括和提煉,表演要在「像」的基礎上,又不要「太像」,演得太像,反而不像。舞台上馬鞭一揮,表示駿馬奔馳。船槳一揮,表示行船萬里。在台上跑幾個圈,象徵走了千山萬水......這些表演不是生活的真實,但觀眾看起來卻非常認可,這就是戲曲藝術之美。藝術是相通的,繪畫也是這樣,美在似與不似之間。齊白石在宣紙上畫幾隻蝦子,其他什麼也不畫,但觀眾感覺到池水蕩漾,蝦子在水中亂跳。他說:「太像則媚俗,不像是欺世」。這種藝術觀與戲諺「不像不是戲,太像不是藝」,有異曲同工之妙。戲諺又說:「唱戲不動情,看戲不同情」,告訴演員演戲要進入角色,帶荅u感情去演,以情動人,感染觀眾。因而有「唱戲人是瘋子,看戲人是傻子」之說。我想這就是中國人的審美情趣。中國戲曲在世界藝術史上佔有重要地位,是一株芬芳的奇葩。作者在戲曲史有深入的研究,對戲曲的產生、戲曲與音樂的關係、戲曲的歷史演變以及元雜劇在戲曲發展史上的作用,有更深入的研究。由於年代久遠,有的戲諺已經被歲月的灰塵埋沒,有的已經失傳,需要挖掘搶救。有的地方做得好,如上海的「滬諺」已列入到當地非物質文化遺產。劉克定的《祖言》一書,參加了2018年北京國際書展,我想戲諺這朵開不敗的花,迎接祖國戲曲藝術繁榮的春天的到來,作為中國文化遺產,將受到世界的矚目。※扂跤游鏍域岈岆扂腔馱釬眥孮ㄛ福睊斯蝌芄畏狤妅疰З贏尤驐爰讔侐Ы棟蹎騊饒曏郅堭見盈熀封ё疿侂惘幛腔儕朸笙蜓ㄛ扂蠅頗樟哿贗薯ㄛ峈福稊鷏嗣腔岈﹝

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    ♀ThenumberofinternationalstudentsfromcountriesalongtheroutestudyinginChinahasincreasedinrecentyears♀MoreofthemarechoosingmajorsinscienceandengineeringasmorecountriesrecognizeChinasdevelopmentinthesefields♀ThesestudentscancontributetotheirowncountriesdevelopmentwiththeknowledgetheygainedinChinaandalsohelpenhancebilateraltieswithChinaAstudentholdsupanewyearsgreetingatapartyheldbyChang:CourtesyofChanganUniversityAstheBeltandRoadInitiativecontinuestobringtangiblebenefitstothecountriesinvolved,morestudentsfromtheBeltandRoadroutecountriesarechoosingtostudyinChina,andmoreofthemarestartingtolearnadvanc,astudentfromZambia,choseXianJiaotongUniversityinNorthwestChinasShaanxiProvincetostudymedicinein2013whenhewas19yearsold,andnowheisinmedicalpracticeattheFirstAffiliatedHospitalofXianJiaotongUniversity."InZambia,manystudentswouldliketostudymedicine,buttherearefewmedicalschoolsandtheyareverycostly,especiallytheprivateones,"LengwetoldtheGlobalTimes."Chinabecomesthebestoptionwithitslowcostandhigh-qualityeducation,"slicenseinZambiaaftergraduation."ThemainreasonIamstudyingmedicineistohelpothers,whichmakesmefeellifeismeaningful,"srapiddevelopmentinrecentyears,moreandmorepeoplearebeginningtounderstandChinesecultureandmorecountries,especiallythosealongtheBeltandRoadroute,arestartingtorecognizeChinaadroutechoosetostudyinthecountry,arafterstudyingclinicalmedicineinXianJiaotongUniversityforalmost10years."IlikeChinassafeenvironmentandconvenientfacilities,",KhanappliedforXi,Xianisplayingapivotalro,XianJiaotongUniversity,thetopuniversityinShaanxiProvince,initiatedtheUniversityAllianceoftheSilkRoad(UASR)totrai,thealliancehasincorporated151universitiesfrom38countries,accordingtotheSchoolofInternationalEducationofXi,theuniversityaimstotraintale,XianJiaotongUniversityhadatotalof2,804internationalstudentsfrom136countriesandregions,,19,fromUkraine,studiesattheSchoolofEconomicsandFinanceofXi"Chinaisundergoingrapiddevelopment,,IdliketolearneconomicsandtradeinChina,",therewere500,,scienceandtechnologyandagricultureincreasedby20percentcomparedto2016,,moreinternationalstudentsarech,especiallythoselocatedinimportantpointsoftheBeltandRoadroute,havelaunch,NorthwestChinasGansuProvince,,directoroftheOfficeofInternationalCooperationandExchangeofLanzhouUniversity,toldtheGlobalTimesthattheuniversityhashelpedtotrainstudentsfromPakistan,Afghanistan,andsomeAfricancountriesinareaswheretheuniversityhasadvantages,includingecologicalstudy,biologicalscienceandgrasslandfarming."DozensofdoctoralstudentsfromPakis,ouragriculturaltechnologybaseinKenyahelpstrainlocaltechniciansandfarmerswithplasticfilmmulchingandwatersavingtechnologiestosolvefoodshortageproblems,"anUniversityinShaanxiProvince,oneofChinastopinstitutesforroadandbridgeandautomobileengineering,hasdevelopedauniversity-industrycooperationmodelfortraininginternationaltalent,whichhasboostedinternationalstudentnumbersfrom409in2013to1,邦Weidong,directoroftheInternationalStudentsAffairsofficeofChanganUniversityinXian,toldtheGlobalTimesthat"University-industrycooperationtotraininternationalstudentsisafeatureofChanganUniversity,sinceweareamongthefirstbatchofuniversitiesinChinathathaveadoptedtheapproach,aswellasthemostexperiencedone.""ManylargeconstructionengineeringcompaniesthatareparticipatingintheBeltandRoadconstructioncametousforcooperation,astraininglocaltalentisaneffectivewaytocutcostsandguaranteemaintenanceworkafterconstruction,"saidL邦,addingthat"cultivatinglocaltalentisalsoaresponsibilitythatChineseenterprisesarefulfillinginthecountriesinvolvedintheBeltandRoad."EngineeringstudentsfromTheRepublicoftheCongoconductfieldworkatapracticebaseinChanganUniversityPhoto:CourtesyofChanganUniversity"CooperationwithShaanxiAutomobinternationalstudents,asthecompanyexpandsitsbusinessscopetosomeSoutheastAsianandAfricancountriessuchasLaosandCambodiaandAlgeria,"L邦邦saidthatatthebeginningof2018,theuniversityandShaanxiAutomobileselected20studentsfromthesecountriesforpostgraduatestudiesintheuniversity,,thecompanya,theuniversityalsolaunchedmajorsservingp,atotalof1,000internationalstudentswereadmittedbytheuniversity,andthegoalin2019is1,anUniversitytoprovideoneortwo-yeartec邦toldtheGlobalTimesthatmostoftheinternationalstudentswhograduatedfromChanganUniversityhavereturnedt,directoroftheSchoolofInternationalCulturalExchangeinLanzhouUniversity,toldtheGlobalTimesthattheuniversityhasenrollednearly2,600internationalstudentsfrom59countries,with97percentofthemfromtheBeltandRoadroute."Duringtheirstudy,theuniversitypaysattentiontocreatinganinternationalatmosphereoncampusandalsohelpsexpandtheirunderstandingofChinatoexplaigeforfuturefriendship,"omtherewouldofferintellectualsupportfortheconstructionoftheChinaPakistanEconomicCo,ZhangsaidthattheseinternationalstudentswouldalsobringChinasgoverningexperiencetotheirowncountries."ComparedwithWesterncountries,Chinashares,Chinasexperienceindealingwithproblemsmaybemorehelpful."Newspaperheadline:Routetoknowledgewww.22gvb.com﹛﹛奀路拻爛ㄛ闔肅韓樓鎢酗景庈部ㄛ恁寁遵傑釬峈菴媼跺邈褐萸ㄛ祫森闔肅韓婓酗景妀部湛善2模﹝拸侄煽騝籤麮妗覺竟鞶畎й閥尿じ標臏汐艙警時﹝

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